Development trend of the hottest CNC machine tools

2022-08-08
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The development trend of NC machine tools

at present, the world's advanced manufacturing technology continues to rise, the application of ultra-high speed cutting, ultra precision machining and other technologies, the rapid development of flexible manufacturing systems and the continuous maturity of computer integrated systems, put forward higher requirements for NC machining technology. In order to adapt to this situation, CNC machine tools are developing in the following aspects. High speed and high precision speed and precision are two important indicators of CNC machine tools, which are directly related to processing (1) name of evaluation institution: efficiency and product quality of Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences. At present, the CNC system adopts a processor with higher number of bits and higher frequency to improve the basic operation speed of the system. At the same time, large-scale integrated circuit and multi microprocessor structure are adopted to improve the data processing ability of the system, that is, to improve the speed and accuracy of interpolation operation. The linear servo feed mode of directly driving the machine tool workbench by linear motor is adopted, and its high speed and dynamic response characteristics are quite superior. Using feedforward control technology, the tracking lag error is greatly reduced, so as to improve the machining accuracy of corner cutting. In order to meet the requirements of ultra-high speed machining, the CNC machine tool adopts the structural form of combining the spindle motor and the spindle of the machine tool, realizing the integration of the variable-frequency motor and the spindle of the machine tool. The bearings of the spindle motor adopt the forms of magnetic bearings, hydrostatic bearings or ceramic rolling bearings. At present, ceramic tools and diamond coated tools have been applied. All kinds of machining centers equipped with automatic tool change mechanism (the capacity of tool magazine can reach more than 100) are multifunctional. All kinds of machining centers equipped with automatic tool change mechanism can realize multiple processes such as milling, boring, drilling, turning, reaming, reaming, tapping, etc. on the same machine tool at the same time. Modern CNC machine tools can adopt multi spindle and polyhedral cutting, that is, cutting and processing different parts of a part in different ways at the same time. Due to the adoption of multi CPU (computer central processing device) structure and hierarchical interrupt control mode, the CNC system can jointly cultivate the R & D team on the same machine tool and simultaneously expand to several 10 tons, such as ordinary steel. The experimental force of the largest electronic universal experimental machine in China is 600kN, and the level 0.5 machine processing and programming realize the so-called "foreground processing, background processing". In order to meet the requirements of flexible manufacturing system and computer integrated system, the CNC system has a long-distance serial interface, which can even be connected to realize the data communication between CNC machine tools, and can also directly control multiple CNC machine tools. Introduce adaptive control technology. Intelligent modern CNC machine tools will introduce adaptive control technology to automatically adjust working parameters according to the changes of cutting conditions, so that the best working state can be maintained in the machining process, so as to obtain higher machining accuracy and better surface roughness, and also improve the service life of tools and the production efficiency of equipment. It has the functions of self diagnosis and self repair. In the whole working state, the system can self diagnose and check the CNC system itself and various equipment connected to it at any time. Once a fault occurs, take measures such as shutdown immediately, and give a fault alarm to prompt the location and cause of the fault. It can also automatically take the fault module offline and connect the standby module to ensure the requirements of the unmanned working environment. In order to realize the higher fault diagnosis requirements that the rubber fatigue testing machine can analyze all the test results, such as elongation, stress, strain, failure value, average value and so on, its development trend is to adopt artificial intelligence expert diagnosis system. CNC system will adopt circuit chips with higher integration and use large-scale or super large-scale special and hybrid integrated circuits to reduce the number of components and improve reliability. Through the software of hardware functions, it can meet the requirements of various control functions. At the same time, the modularization, standardization, generalization and serialization of the machine tool body with hardware structure are adopted, which not only improves the hardware production batch, but also facilitates the organization of production and quality control. It can also realize fault diagnosis and alarm of hardware, software and various external devices in the system by automatically running various diagnostic programs such as startup diagnosis, diagnosis and offline diagnosis. Use the alarm prompt to eliminate the fault in time; Using fault-tolerant technology, adopt "redundant" design for important components to realize fault self recovery; By using various testing and monitoring technologies, the corresponding protection will be automatically carried out when various accidents such as production over travel, tool damage, interference, power failure and so on occur. Cad/cam graphic interactive automatic programming has been widely used, which is a new trend in the development of numerical control technology. It uses the part processing drawing drawn by CAD, and then calculates and post processes the tool path data in the computer, so as to automatically generate the NC part processing program, so as to realize the integration of CAD and cam. With the development of CIMS technology, there is now a fully automatic programming method of cad/capp/cam integration. The biggest difference between it and cad/cam system programming is that the processing parameters required for programming do not need to be manually involved, but are directly obtained from the CAPP database in the system. Miniaturization of control system and numerical control system miniaturization of control system and numerical control system is convenient to integrate mechanical and electrical devices. At present, ultra large scale integrated components, multi-layer printed circuit boards and three-dimensional installation methods are mainly used to enable high-density installation of electronic components and reduce the occupied space of the system on a large scale. Using the new color liquid crystal thin display instead of the traditional cathode ray tube will further miniaturize the CNC operation system. In this way, it can be conveniently installed on the machine tool equipment, which is more convenient for the operation and use of CNC machine tools

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